Spindle bearings are an important part of a CNC machine. They allow the tool to cut and grind materials smoothly without jamming, resulting in more accurate cuts and a longer life span for the machine.
Spindle bearings, like what you can find from companies like Airturbinetools.com, must tolerate the axial and radial pressures produced during machining. This article will examine the different bearings used in a spindle and how they function.
The spindle part that holds and rotates the cutting tool is called the shaft. It is made of a strong and durable material that can withstand high loads and temperatures. The shaft has bearings that help it rotate along the centerline of the spindle.
Machine tools have various types of shafts, each intended for a particular purpose. For example, the angular contact ball bearings found in most CNC milling spindles are specifically designed to support loads whose application line is at an angle to the perpendicular axis. This design allows for higher metal removal rates and longer spindle life by achieving a much higher operational speed.
In addition to the shaft, the machine tool includes a collet or chuck that holds the cutting tool in place. This mechanism is typically powered by a back-mounted actuating cylinder that uses hydraulics or pneumatics to apply the necessary force to grip and release the tool.
A good lubrication system is essential to the performance of a CNC machine tool. It can reduce vibration and heat while also protecting the bearings from damage. Several different types of lubrication systems can be used in machine tools, including grease-based and oil-based. Choosing the right lubrication system depends on the type of operating environment and the temperature range.
The bearings in the spindle are the heart of the system and ensure the shaft rotates smoothly. They can be a key factor in the efficiency of your machine, and proper installation, handling, and maintenance will keep them running at peak performance and longevity.
Angular contact ball bearings are the most common type of spindle bearings and consist of one or more rows of rolling balls between concentric grooved rings. They can take radial and axial loads in one direction, enhancing motion and reducing friction.
Radial or deep-groove bearings are also popular. They are similar to angular-contact ball bearings but have a larger contact angle, making them better at taking axial loads in one direction. They also tend to have a higher load capacity than their angular-contact counterparts and are typically found in industrial machinery.
Roller bearings are a common alternative to both radial and angular-contact bearings. They are used in rotary applications to replace sliding movement with low-friction, rolling motion and are available in single-row and double-row configurations.
Proper spindle preload prevents the shaft from moving excessively in its housing and causing damage to the bearings or unwanted vibration. A too-light preload can result in bearing ball skidding, which causes a loss of contact area and a significant increase in friction. Too heavy a preload can cause the radial load to exceed its limit, and the bearing may fail.
The Lubrication System
The lubrication system is critical to the life of the spindle bearings. Maintaining a thin film of lubricant between the rolling elements and the inner races is important. Without lubrication, the rolling elements would contact each other directly, producing friction and heat. This can cause race deterioration, rolling element degradation, cage disintegration, and spindle/bearing failure.
To keep the lubricant at its optimal level, various types of lubrication systems are available. The most basic is a simple grease-packed spindle, which can be used with manual or automatic lubrication systems. Manual lubrication systems use a metering unit and pressure switch to control the amount of oil sent to the linear guide trucks, ballscrews, and spindle bearings. The metering unit is connected to a pump that delivers the oil to the lubrication ports in the machining center. The oil then flows into flexible plastic tubing that connects to the machining centers, ballscrews, and linear guide trucks. The metering units also have a drip sight glass that allows you to monitor how much lubricant is being delivered.
The dynamic behavior of a milling spindle set is sensitive to the centrifugal and gyroscopic moments and the geometry of the holder and drawbar force. This is why a simulation model has been developed to analyze some parameters’ influence on the system’s dynamics.
Over time, the bearings may wear out, or lubrication can run out. This can lead to spindle failure and expensive repairs. To prevent this, seals keep contaminants from entering the spindle bearings. There are two main types of spindle seals – contact and non-contact. Choosing the correct type for your spindle depends on the application, the spindle design’s complexity, and the housing space available.
Having an expert inspect your machine’s seals and lubrication system is always a good idea. It often helps prevent expensive problems and extend the lifespan of your equipment.